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Process Paper and Annotated Bibliography

Process Paper

          We spent great care is choosing the best topic to fit us, and used many different sources in our research, many primary. The first thing we did was choose a topic. First we brainstormed all the possible topics which fit into the theme, then we eliminated the ones that didn't have a lot of photos because we wanted to do a web site. Last we chose the topic we were most interested in, that was the Manhattan Project. Now that we chose the topic the first thing we did was go to the library and read all the books we could find. Then we began searching on the internet. On the internet we found many articles and many scanned primary documents. We also found many photos and media which we used in our web site.

          The final step was actually constructing the web site. The main programs we used were Notepad, to type the HTML code, and Paint Shop Pro 7 for the web graphics and photo editing. Our first step in making the web site was choosing what the layout would be. We decided we would have a navigation bar at the top and have all the pages linked together like a tour so when you visited the site you would easy go to all the pages. In Paint Shop Pro 7 we made the bar by making the basic shape, then we did a series of effects to make the metal effect. Then we added the aqua buttons, the text, and a few more special effects. Last we sliced the image into multiple images and put it in the web site using HTML code. We made the whole web site by typing HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) code and saving it as a HTML file. We chose to type code instead of using a program because we felt it was easier and made more compatible web pages.

          This topic relates to the theme of Revolution Reaction And Reform in History in many ways. The Manhattan Project could be considered a revolution in warfare, technology, and ethics. After the invention of the bomb, warfare was forever changed. Since the end of World War II there has not been another World War, and many generations have lived in the fear of the bomb. Since the invention of the bomb scientists have been researching the use of atomic technology to make even more powerful bombs, to fuel ships and submarines, and make nuclear power plants to power whole cities. Ethics were also changed forever. Since the dropping of the bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki many people have argued whether America should have used the bomb, and if it should be used in the future.

          In conclusion, we learned quite a lot about researching and compiling sources, managing time, and constructing a top quality History Day Web Site. Overall, this was a great experience with some knots along the way. However, we managed to solve our problems and complete our History Day Project.

Annotated Bibliography


Primary Sources


"The 509th Composite Group Flightline." B-29 Superfortress Then and Now...
     URL: http://home.att.net/~sallyann2/enola-gay.jpg (26 Jan. 2002)
          This is a picture of the Enola Gay, a b-29 bomber which dropped "Little Boy" on Hiroshima. "Little Boy" was the first atomic bomb ever dropped. The bomb was dropped by the 509th Composite Bomb Group on August 6, 1945 killing thousands and destroying a whole city. Brig Gen Paul W.Tibbits, the captain named the plane after his mother, Enola Gay.

"A Catholic Priest." Interview. URL: http://www.wtj.com/archives/hiroshima.htm (26 Jan. 2002)
          This link has two eyewitness accounts from Bishop Franklin Corley and P. Siemes. They tell how powerfull and deadly the atomic bomb is.

"A Military Leader." US History. URL: http://www.fas.org/nuke/hew/Usa/Med/Groves.jpg (26 Jan. 2002)
          In the picture is the head of the project development, General groves. I thought that this would kind of give the viewer a good idea of the people who worked on the project. I got a very good perspective of the kind of people that worked on the atom bomb.

"Atomic Bomb." Manhattan Project. URL: www.battelle.org/career/batelle/timeline.html
     (8 Jan. 2002)           
I chose to use this picture in our project for many different reasons. It gives you a great image of what an atom bomb really looks like. We also gathered much knowledge from viewing this picture. You can learn many things by understanding what the Manhattan Project worked so hard to work with. This was the basis of the bomb itself.

"Atomic explosion." Weapons Development. URL:
     library.tamu.edu/.../collectn/ techno/aebersold/intro.html (26 Jan. 2002)
          This is an explosion of an atomic bomb. It is not the same as a Hydrogen Bomb explosion as you can tell by putting them next to each other. It also demonstrates deadly force. I learned we had two weapons of nuclear nature in WWII.

"Bombing eyewitness" Interview. URL: http://www.atomicarchive.com/Docs/Nagasaki.shtml
     (26 Jan. 2002)           
Eye witness account of the atomic bomb mission over Nagasaki.

"Bombing Order" Dropping the Bomb. URL:http://www.dannen.com/decision/hand.html
     (26 Jan. 2002)
          This article is a bombing order issued to general Spaatz. From reading this article I discovered that the order had no mention of sparing civilians and that the city was the target. I felt that this was an excellent firsthand source that delivered much revealing information on the way we wanted to bomb Japan.

"Children of the Manhattan Project." COTMP Home Page. URL:
      http://www.childrenofthemanhattanproject.org/ (26 Jan. 2002)
          This is a great site with about 500 photos and almost 800 pages. The web page contains almost everything about the manhattan project with documents, biographies, quotes, photos, articles, timelines, and more. Some of the documents are memos from people involved and other military documents. The site contains biographies of most the main people involved, and quotes from them. The photos range from the building where the bombs were developed to the testing and dropping of the atomic bomb. There are many photos of the buildings showing were the scientists and their families lived.

"Committee of Atomic Scientists." Microsoft Encarta. Computer Software. Microsoft, 2001.
          This is a picture of the scientists on the Committee of Atomic Scientists. The Committee included scientists Harold Urey, Albert Einstein, Selig Hecht, Victor Weisskopf, Leo Szilard, Hans Bethe, Thorfin Hogness, and Philip Morse. This committee was formed to encourage international control of nuclear energy and studies for its peaceful uses.

"The Costs of the Manhattan Project." The Brookings Institute. URL:
      http://www.brook.edu/FP/PROJECTS/NUCWCOST/MANHATTN.HTM (9 Jan. 2002)
          The web page is a great resource showing the costs of everything within the Manhattan Project. It tells the exact amount of money spend and how the money was divided. I was very useful because it told how much materials cost to find and process, and how much each atomic bomb cost.

Dannen, Gene. "Einstein's letter to Roosevelt, August 2, 1939." Gene Dannen's Home Page URL:
      http://www.dannen.com/ae-fdr.html (22 Jan. 2002)
          The page contains the letter Einstein wrote to F.D. Roosevelt and the history of the letter. The letter was written in 1939, six months after uranium fission was discovered, urged the president to fund research on uranium. He mentions Germany is researching uranium and if the U.S. does not follow the Germans may create a bomb of mass destruction before the Allies. The president approved the plan but only gave them $6,000 dollars. It was not until 2 years later that the U.S. Started a large scale project. The project became know as "The Manhattan Project" in August 1942.

Dannen, Gene. "Trinity Test, July 16, 1945, Eyewitness Accounts-Cyril S. Smith." Atomic Bomb:
     Decision URL: http://www.dannen.com/decision (22 Jan. 2002)
          This article is an eyewitness report from a scientist (Cyril S. Smith) who actually witnessed the atomic testing (Trinity Testing) on July 16, 1945. It tells of how scientists felt the heat of the explosion, even 32 kilometers (20 miles) away on exposed skin. This document used to be a classified document, but has since been declassified.

Dannen, Gene. "Trinity Test, July 16, 1945, Eyewitness Accounts-Luis W. Alvarez." Atomic Bomb:
      Decision. URL: http://www.dannen.com/decision (22 Jan. 2002)
          This article is an eyewitness report from a scientist (Luis W. Alvarez) who actually witnessed the atomic testing (Trinity Testing) on July 16, 1945. It tells of how scientists felt the heat of the explosion, even 32 kilometers (20 miles) away on exposed skin. (Declassified eyewitness account on Trinity).

Dannen, Gene. "Trinity Test, July 16, 1945, Eyewitness Accounts-Philip Morrison." Atomic Bomb:
     Decision. URL: http://www.dannen.com/decision (22 Jan. 2002)
          This article is an eyewitness report from a scientist (Philip Morrison) who actually witnessed the atomic testing (Trinity Testing) on July 16, 1945. It tells of how scientists felt the heat of the explosion, even 32 kilometers (20 miles) away on exposed skin. (Declassified eyewitness account on Trinity).

Dannen, Gene. "Harry S. Truman, Diary, July 25, 1945." Atomic Bomb: Decision. URL:
      http://www.dannen.com/decision (22 Jan. 2002)
          The excerpt from President Truman‚s diary on July 25, 1945 telling that he had ordered the bomb used. He states that he believes he is dropping the bomb on a ≥purely military„ target. It is pretty ironic that, in the process of destroying the "military target," Truman also killed thousands of innocent civilians. This example proved to the world the power of an atomic weapon.

Dannen, Gene. "Target Committee, Los Alamos, May 10-11, 1945." Atomic Bomb: Decision.
      URL: http://www.dannen.com/decision (22 Jan. 2002)
          This is the Minutes of the Target Committee. This meeting took place in the office of Robert J. Oppenheimer to decide the best use for the "gadget" (atomic bomb). Little do they know that this will result in the surrender of Japan, a good thing, yet many, many civilians will be killed in order to result in this decision.

Dowling, Mike. "The Electronic Passport to the Manhattan Project," bombing info.
     URL: http://www.mrdowling.com/706-manhattanproject.html (26 Nov. 2001)
          Picture of Oppenheimer - leader of Manhattan Project, And Manhattan project site.

"Enola Gay Bombing" U.S. Bomb Info. URL:
      http://www.antique-radio.org/sounds/events/abomb.htm (26 Jan 2002)
          This link has some pictures of the a-bomb explosion and a few statistics about the dropping of the bomb.

"Eyewitness, MCmillian." Eyewitness accounts of A-bomb explosion.
      URL: http://www.dannen.com/decision/mcmillian.html (26 Jan 2002)
          I learned at the trinity bomb test people 20 miles away could feel the heat on their bare skin. These once classified accounts add to my amazement of what man has created. These accounts will be put into the project because they were the first ones to witness the Atom Bomb at work.

"Eyewitness, Shapiro." Eyewitness accounts of A-bomb Explosion.
      URL: http://www.dannen.com/decision/shapiro.html (26 Jan 2002)
           I learned at the trinity bomb test people 20 miles away could feel the heat on their bare skin. These once classified accounts add to my amazement of what man has created. These accounts will be put into the project because they were the first ones to witness the Atom Bomb at work.

"Eyewitness, Weisskopf." Eyewitness accounts of A-bomb explosion.
      URL: http://www.dannen.com/decision/weisskopf.html (26 Jan 2002)
          I learned at the trinity bomb test people 20 miles away could feel the heat on their bare skin. These once classified accounts add to my amazement of what man has created. These accounts will be put into the project because they were the first ones to witness the Atom Bomb at work.

"Fat Man Blueprint." US History. URL: http://www.fas.org/nuke/hew/Usa/Med/Fm100.gif (26 Jan. 2002)
          In the picture is the blueprint of Fat Man, the bomb dropped on Nagasaki. I thought that this would kind of give the viewer a good idea of what the inside and the dimentions of the bomb were.

Greisen, Kenneth. Bombing eyewitness. Interview. URL:
      http://www.dannen.com/decision/greisen.html 16 July 1945
          Even 10 miles away, scientists felt the heat of the explosion in exposed skin. Declassified eyewitness accounts of the Trinity.

Hachiyn. Hiroshima Diary. New York : Van Pees Press, 1995.
          This book was written by a Jananese doctor who lived in Hiroshima at the time the bomb was dropped. The book is about stories of real people in Hiroshima at the time and details of the destruction and horror. The book contains a lot of information about radiation and the effects of the bomb.

"Hydrogen Bomb." H -bomb explosion. URL:
      library.thinkquest.org/17940/texts/timeline/manhattan.html (26 Jan 2002)
          I felt that this was a very important picture because it is a live picture of what devastation man has created. It can be shocking at the way science has propelled us through a war victory. I felt that it was necessary to show how the powers of the atom work.

"Little Boy and Fat Man." US History. URL:http://www.fas.org/nuke/hew/Usa/Med/Amwpns.jpg (26 Jan. 2002)
          In the picture are the two atomic bombs that were created. I thought that this would kind of give the viewer a good idea of what the bomb looked like. I got a very good perspective on how small the atomic bomb is, and wondered how it could crete so much damage.

Nakagawa, Yukiharu. Interview. URL: http://www.csi.ad.jp/ABOMB/Hibakusha/h04.html
     9 June 1995
          Interview of an A-Bomb survivor: Mr. Yukiharu Nakagawa.

NASM Webmaster. "Enola Gay Crew" U.S. Bomb Crew. URL:
      http://www.nasm.si.edu/galleries/gal103/EG_crew.html (26 Jan 2002)
          This link has the names of the flight crew and ground crew of the őEnola Gay‚.

Ohba, Mitsuru and Benson, John. "A-Bomb and Effects." U.S.Bombing of Japan. URL:
      http://www.csi.ad.jp/ABOMB/ (10 July 2000)
          This site has a few photos of the after-effect of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki bombing.

Ohba, Mitsuru and Benson, John. "Damage reports and monument" Japan Memorization of Bombing.
     URL: http://www.csi.ad.jp/suzuhari-es/1000cranes/nagasaki/index.html(10 July 2000)
          This link has statistics and a few pictures about damage reports.

Ohba, Mitsuru and Benson, John. „Dr. Ryuso Tanaka„.
     URL: http://www.csi.ad.jp/ABOMB/Hibakusha/h01.html (26 Jan 2002)
          This is a Picture of Dr. Ryuso Tanaka, a person that witnessed the bombings.

Ohba, Mitsuru and Benson, John. "Graph of Effects." A-Bomb Effects.
     URL: http://www.csi.ad.jp/ABOMB/data.html (26 Jan 2002)
          This link has many graphs about the effects of atomic bombs.

Ohba, Mitsuru and Benson, John. "Mr. Kosuke Shishido".
     URL: http://www.csi.ad.jp/ABOMB/Hibakusha/h02.html (25 Jan. 2002)
          This is a Picture of Mr. Kosuke Shishido, a person that witnessed the bombings.

Ohba, Mitsuru and Benson, John. "Mr. Yukiharu Nakagawa."
      URL: http://www.csi.ad.jp/ABOMB/Hibakusha/h04.html (25 Jan. 2002)
          This is a Picture of Mr. Yukiharu Nakagawa, a person that witnessed the bombings.

Ohba, Mitsuru and Benson, John. "Ms. Michiko Yamaoka." URL:
      http://www.csi.ad.jp/ABOMB/Hibakusha/h03.html (26 Jan 2002)
          This is a Picture of Ms. Michiko Yamaoka, a person that witnessed the bombings.

"Project Manhattan." Atomic Bomb. URL: www.mrdowling.com/706-manhattanproject.html
     ( Jan 8, 2002)
          I learned a couple of things from this picture. How complicated a weapon of mass destruction can be and how dangerous it can be to work with. I chose to put this into the project because it gives you a detail of what was going on in the Manhattan Project. A picture is worth a thousand words.

"Quebec Agreement" U.S. friendships.
     URL: http://www.atomicarchive.com/Docs/Quebec.shtml (26 Jan 2002)
          Agreement between America and England.

"Resources of the Nuclear Files, Historical Documents, Pictures of Hiroshima and Nagasaki."
     Nuclearfiles, Nuclear Weapons Resources. URL: http://www.nuclearfiles.org/resources.html
     (15 Jan. 2002)
          This web page is a project of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation. Along with the ethics and other issues about the atomic bomb the site contains great information for the beginning of the nuclear age, the Manhattan Project. Some of the resources are documents, treaties, a photo gallery, an audio library, and graphs. The page was useful because it contained a lot of multimedia needed for our web page.

Serber, Robert. Bombing eyewitness interview. URL:
      http://www.dannen.com/decision/serber.html 16 July 1945
          Even 32 kilometers (20 miles) away, scientists felt the heat of the explosion in exposed skin. Declassified eyewitness accounts of the Trinity

Sherrow, Victoria. The Making of the Atom Bomb. San Diego, California: Lucent Books, Inc., 2000.
          This picture shows Physicist Ernest Lawrence adjusting one of the many cyclotrons used in the making of the atomic bomb. The cyclotron was invented by Lawrence himself, which earned him the 1939 Nobel Prize in physics. A cyclotron is a device used to accelerate nuclear particles. Based on the picture, I can tell that making atomic bombs is delicate business because the scientist seems to be very concentrated on his work.

Shishido, Kosuke Interview. URL: http://www.csi.ad.jp/ABOMB/Hibakusha/h02.html
     (26 Jan 2002)
          Interview of an A-Bomb survivor: Mr. Kosuke Shishido.

Society for the Historical Preservation of the Manhattan Project. "Hall of Fame Gallery-I - Kenneth      Bainbridge."
      URL: http://www.childrenof themanhattanproject.com(22 Jan. 2002)
          This is a picture of Kenneth Bainbridge. Bainbridge was the director of the ≥Trinity Testing,„ or the original testing of the atomic bomb. Without his contribution, the atomic bomb may not have been proven to work, and that could have changed the outcome of the war.

Society for the Historical Preservation of the Manhattan Project. "Hall of Fame Gallery-I - Leo
      Szilard." URL: http://www.childrenof themanhattanproject.com (22 Jan. 2002)
          This is a picture of Leo Szilard. Leo Szilard was the group leader at the University of Chicago. Szilard was a Hungarian-born American nuclear physicist. He is known for his work in the development of controlled nuclear fission. Szilard, along with Italian physicist Enrico Fermi developed the first chain reaction.

Society for the Historical Preservation of the Manhattan Project. "Hall of Fame Gallery-I - Leslie
      Groves." URL: http://www.childrenof themanhattanproject.com (22 Jan. 2002)
          This is a picture of Brigadier General Leslie Groves. He was the Commanding General of the Manhattan Project. Groves‚ team, working in different locations in Los Alamos, New Mexico, designed and built the first atomic bomb.

Society for the Historical Preservation of the Manhattan Project. "Hall of Fame Gallery-I - Robert
      Oppenheimer." URL: http://www.childrenof themanhattanproject.com (22 Jan. 2002)
          This is a picture of Robert J. Oppenheimer. Oppenheimer, an American physicist, directed the development of the first atomic bombs. His leadership and organizational skills earned him the Medal of Merit in 1946. Oppenheimer was known for his contributions to the theory of relativity, the quantum theory, cosmic rays, positrons, and neutron stars.

"Spartacus school, atomic explosion" Picture. URL:
      http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/GERperierls.htm (26 Jan 2002)
          Picture of atomic explosion.

Tanaka, Ryuso. Interview. URL:
      http://www.csi.ad.jp/ABOMB/Hibakusha/h01.html 16 May 1995.
          Interview of an A-Bomb survivor: Dr. Ryuso Tanaka

Tankard, Jim and Tankard, Fred "Fatman" picture. URL:
      Members.aol.com/JTankard/trinity/visit.html (26 Jan 2002)
          Picture of Fatman bomb which was dropped Nagasaki

"Trinity Site." The Bureau of Atomic Toruism. URL:
      http://www.oz.net/~chrisp/images/trinity5.jpg (26 Jan. 2002)
          This is a picture of the ground where the Trinity test took place. At ground zero, Trinitite, the green, glassy substance found in the area, is still radioactive form the Trinity test. The Trinitite was formed by sand fusing during the heat of the explosion.

"Trinity Explosion." Trinity Test. URL:
      http://www.fas.org/nuke/hew/Usa/Tests/Trin2.jpg (26 Jan. 2002)
          This is a picture of the explosion of "Fat Man". I found it amazing that a samll bomb like that could do so much destruction. We used this in ouer page of the Trinity Test.

Walker, Gregory. "Atomic Test" U.S. Warfare. URL:
      http://fas.org/nuke/trinity/trinity/wd_press.html (26 jan 2002)
          This press release gives a dramatic account of the events surrounding the Trinity Atomic Test. Statements from General Leslie Groves and General Thomas Farrell are included.

Walker, Gregory. "Base Camp." Trinity Atomic Test Site. URL:
      http://www.fas.org/nuke/trinity/trinity/basecamp.gif (26 Jan. 2002)
          This is a picture of the base camp for the Manhattan Project. The camp is 10 miles away from the Trinity test site. This is where many scientists and their families lived during the Manhattan Project. Their homes were usually made simple, barracks style. This camp is one of the three major camps made for the Manhattan Project.

Walker, Gregory. "Ground Zero." Trinity Atomic Test Site. URL:
      http://www.fas.org/nuke/trinity/trinity/crater.gif (26 Jan. 2002)
          This is a photo of ground zero after the Trinity test. Among the people inspecting the base are Oppenheimer, the scientific leader of the Manhattan Project, and Gen. Leslie Groves, the military leader of the project. As you can see in the picture the rest of the 100 foot structure was disintegrated. The photo was taken by the U.S. Army.

Walker, Gregory. "Lifting the Gadget." Trinity Atomic Test Site. URL:
      http://www.fas.org/nuke/trinity/trinity/gadget1.gif (26 Jan. 2002)
          This is a picture of the "Gadget" being lifter into a 100 foot tower. The "Gadget" was one of the Little Boy bombs and was the first atomic bomb to be detonated. The "Gadget" was the same type as the bomb dropped on Hiroshima. The bomb disintegrated the whole 100 foot tower except for a little of the foundation.

Walker, Gregory. "Trinity Map." Trinity Atomic Test Site. URL:
      http://www.fas.org/nuke/trinity/trinity/trmap2.gif (26 Jan. 2002)
          This is a detailed map of the Trinity test site and the surrounding area. The map contains all the roads, shelters, camps, rivers, lakes, and surrounding terrain. The map was useful for understanding the location of everything involved in the Manhattan Project.

Walker, Gregory. "WAR DEPARTMENT." Trinity Atomic Test Site. URL:
      http://www.fas.org/nuke/trinity/trinity/groves1.html (22 Jan. 2002)
          This document is a report from General Leslie Groves to the Secretary of War about the Trinity test. The document contains eyewitness reports from numerous people and useful data like the size and destruction of the explosion. The document is useful for quotes and information.

Yamaoka, Michiko. Interview. URL: http://www.csi.ad.jp/ABOMB/Hibakusha/h03.html 4 June 1995
          Interview of an A-Bomb survivor: Ms Michiko Yamaoka.

"Z Division - Trinity Test." Sandia National Labortatories. URL:
      www.sandia.gov/recordsmgmt/zdiv_5.jpg (26 Jan. 2002)
          This is a overview picture of the trinity test site after the test. The light ring is from the detonation of 100 tons of TNT. The darker ring is from the Trinity test. The explosion of the first atomic bomb created a crater 1,200ft across.


Secondary Sources



"Atomic Bomb." Microsoft Encarta. Computer Software. Microsoft, 2001.
          From this source we learned about how atomic bombs work. The source also had the dates of testing and research. The many events in the book will help us create out timeline. This source could help us if we want to explain how an atom bomb works.

"Atomic explosion" picture. URL: serendipity.magnet.ch/more/atomic.html V
          Picture of an atomic explosion similar to the explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Bauer, Lt-Colonel E. The History of World War II: The full story of the world's greatest conflict.
      New York: The Military Press, 1984.
          This book contains a chapter on the "dropping of the atomic bomb" and is a great overview from the first nuclear test to the dropping of the bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The book was useful for information on the actual dropping of the bomb and the methods used for dropping the bombs. The book was also useful for learning more about how and why the Japenese surrendered.

Beyer, Don E. The Manhattan Project. United States: Alfred A. Knopf Inc. 1991
          This book is another book explaining all about the Manhattan Project. It tells about the founding of the project to attempt to try and defeat Germany. President Franklin D. Roosevelt believed that Hitler was attempting to construct an atomic weapon for mass destruction for the purpose of complete world domination. Roosevelt knew that if the Allies developed the atom before the Axis forces did, they could use the bomb to eventually force Hitler‚s surrender/

Beyer, Don. The Manhattan Project : America makes the first atomic bomb. New York:
      F. Watts, 1991.
          This was a great book with a lot of detailed information about the Manhattan Project. It was useful because it goes into great detail about everything from the time uranium fission was discovered to the dropping of the bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The book also contains some good pictures and a great description of the Trinity test. Along with great descriptions the book contains many useful quotes.

Bracchini, Miguel A. "The History and Ethics Behind The Manhattan Project" Mechanical
     Engineering Department, University of Texas. URL:http://www.me.utexas.edu/~uer/manhattan/
      (9 Jan. 2002)
          The web page and its links are about the history and the ethics of the Manhattan Project. It was helpful because it tells how the atomic bomb works, the different atomic bombs that were made, and how they were used. The site also has information about the usage of the bombs and the ethics behind their usage. The site also contains many quotes and photos.
Children and bombing witnesses. Interview.
      URL: http://www.csi.ad.jp/ABOMB/today.html (26 jan 2002)
          This link has interviewing questions to children and some adults.

Gay, William and Michael Pearson. The Nuclear Arms Race. Chicago American Library association,
      1987.
          From this source I got an overall view of the order of events. This was a good reliable source that could have information extracted easily. I learned to many facts to even star from this book. It was probably one of the best sources. A fact that I learned was that if you created a timeline of WWII it would be very long. But that is what this book is.

Gonzales, Doreen. The Manhattan Project and the Atomic Bomb. Berkeley Heights, NJ:
     Enslow Publishers, 2000.
          From this source I got an overall view of the order of events. This was a good reliable source that could have information extracted easily. I learned to many facts to even star from this book. It was probably the best source of all.

Gordon, Thomas and Max Morgan Witts. Enola Gay. Barcliff Manor, New York: Scarborough
     House, 1977
          This book is about the Enola Gay, the American bomber that dropped the first atomic bomb over Hiroshima, Japan. The Enola Gay is a famous aircraft because of its famous deed. Without the Enola Gay, the outcome of the war could have been drastically altered. However, the success of her mission, along with several others eventually forced the surrender of Japan, an important event in history.

Kunetka, James W. City of Fire-Los Alamos and the Birth of the Atomic Age.
      Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1978
          This book is a story that tells what is was like when the bomb exploded. We could kind of treat this source like a primary eyewitness source to give us an idea of really happened there, even though it is not primary. It is a story that never really happened, but is based on facts.

"Manhattan Project." Compton's Interative Encyclopedia Deluxe. Computer Software. Mindscape,
      1999.
          This is a overview of the Manhattan Project with some pictures. The page has links to other pages to get more details, and it has some good information on the politics behind the Manhattan Project and why the bomb was dropped. It also has some good links.

" Metallurgical Petition." WWII. URL: http://www.dannen.com/decision/45-07-17.html (26 Jan. 2002)
          I chose to use this as a source because it shows how it all started. I also learned many things as to how determined the people of the Manhattan Project were determined to create the Atom Bomb.

"National Atomic Museum Virtual Tour." The National Atomic Mueseum. URL:
      http://www.atomicmuseum.com/tour/index.cfm (9 Jan. 2002)
          This web page contains a overview of the history of the atomic bomb from the first tests to medical information about radiation and the cold war. The site was useful because it supplied us with pictures and a general overview of the whole Atomic Age.

Sherrow, Victoria. The Making of the Atom Bomb. San Diego, California: Lucent Books, Inc., 2000.
          This book had quite a lot of information that could help my group and me a lot. First it explains how an atomic bomb is created and how it works. Then, most importantly to us, it talks about the group of people chosen to research and construct an atomic bomb, the Manhattan Project. The Manhattan Project was started in order to beat the Germans to the development of the atomic bomb.

Trumbull, Robert. Nine Who Survived Hiroshima and Nagasaki. New York:
      E.P. Dutton & Company, Inc., 1957
          This book has the story of nine people who managed to survive the bombing of Nagasaki. It tells of the hardships and torture that these few lucky survivors had to go through. These are basically side effects of radiation which caused, in some cases, slowed brain development and cancer.